Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school entrants in Jos- Plateau, Nigeria

Francis Akor, Seline N Okolo, Angela Okolo, Emmanuel I Agaba


Background: Urinalysis as part of medical examination of fitness in school children is useful in detecting abnormalities that could identify early disease conditions.
Objective: To describe the urine examination findings in apparently healthy newly enrolled primary school entrants in Jos – Plateau.
Methods: Through a multistage stratified randomization procedure, six hundred and fifty apparently healthy pupils were selected to have a complete physical examination in the morning with mid-stream urine samples collection. The urine samples were examined for abnormalities using dipsticks.
Results: Three hundred and one (301) were males and three hundred and forty-nine (349) were females, giving a male to female ratio of 0.9:1. Their ages ranged from 5 to 12 with a mean age of 6.6  1.31. Urinary abnormalities were present in sixty-three (9.6 percent) of the subjects with majority in the six to eight year range. Proteinuria was the commonest abnormality detected and this was found in 23 (3.5 percent) of the subjects. Urobilinogen was present in 12 (1.8 percent) of the subjects. This was significantly greater in male and private school subjects, P-value =0.03. Haematuria and nitrituria was present in ten (1.5 percent) subjects while eleven (1.7 percent) had bilirubinuria. Four (0.6 percent) subjects had ketones in their urine but none had glycosuria. Two pupils (0.2 percent) had both haematuria and proteinuria but no associated elevated blood pressure.
Conclusion: Urine abnormalities are not an uncommon finding in new school entrants and it underscores the importance of urine examination in school children at the point of school entry.

Authors' affiliations

Francis Akor, MRC (UK) Lab,

Seline N Okolo, Jos University Teaching Hospita, Jos-Plateau

Angela Okolo, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin

Emmanuel I Agaba, Jos University Teaching Hospital

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urine examination; school children; proteinuria; haematuria; school health

Cite this article

South African Journal of Child Health 2009;3(2):60.

Article History

Date submitted: 2009-05-13
Date published: 2009-08-26

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